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      F B I

      SQL Injection

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      SQL injection usually occurs when you ask a user for input, like their username/userid, and instead of a name/id, the user gives you an SQL statement that you will unknowingly run on your database.

      Look at the following example which creates a SELECT statement by adding a variable (txtUserId) to a select string. The variable is fetched from user input (getRequestString):


      txtUserId = getRequestString("UserId");
      txtSQL = "SELECT * FROM Users WHERE UserId = " + txtUserId;

      The rest of this chapter describes the potential dangers of using user input in SQL statements.
      SQL Injection Based on 1=1 is Always True

      Look at the example above again. The original purpose of the code was to create an SQL statement to select a user, with a given user id.

      If there is nothing to prevent a user from entering "wrong" input, the user can enter some "smart" input like this:


      Then, the SQL statement will look like this:


      SELECT * FROM Users WHERE UserId = 105 OR 1=1;

      The SQL above is valid and will return ALL rows from the "Users" table, since OR 1=1 is always TRUE.

      Does the example above look dangerous? What if the "Users" table contains names and passwords?

      The SQL statement above is much the same as this:


      SELECT UserId, Name, Password FROM Users WHERE UserId = 105 or 1=1;

      A hacker might get access to all the user names and passwords in a database, by simply inserting 105 OR 1=1 into the input field.

      SQL Injection Based on ""="" is Always True


      uName = getRequestString("username");
      uPass = getRequestString("userpassword");



      sql = 'SELECT * FROM Users WHERE Name ="' + uName + '" AND Pass ="' + uPass + '"'



      SELECT * FROM Users WHERE Name ="John Doe" AND Pass ="myPass"

      A hacker might get access to user names and passwords in a database by simply inserting " OR ""=" into the user name or password text box:

      The code at the server will create a valid SQL statement like this:


      SELECT * FROM Users WHERE Name ="" or ""="" AND Pass ="" or ""=""

      The SQL above is valid and will return all rows from the "Users" table, since OR ""="" is always TRUE.

      SQL Injection Based on Batched SQL Statements 

      Most databases support batched SQL statement.

      A batch of SQL statements is a group of two or more SQL statements, separated by semicolons.

      The SQL statement below will return all rows from the "Users" table, then delete the "Suppliers" table.



      SELECT * FROM Users; DROP TABLE Suppliers

      Look at the following example:



      txtUserId = getRequestString("UserId");
      txtSQL = "SELECT * FROM Users WHERE UserId = " + txtUserId;

      And the following input:

      User id: 105; DROP TABLE Suppliers

      The valid SQL statement would look like this:



      SELECT * FROM Users WHERE UserId = 105; DROP TABLE Suppliers;

      Use SQL Parameters for Protection

      To protect a web site from SQL injection, you can use SQL parameters.

      SQL parameters are values that are added to an SQL query at execution time, in a controlled manner.

      ASP.NET Razor Example


      txtUserId = getRequestString("UserId");
      txtSQL = "SELECT * FROM Users WHERE UserId = @0";

      Note that parameters are represented in the SQL statement by a @ marker.

      The SQL engine checks each parameter to ensure that it is correct for its column and are treated literally, and not as part of the SQL to be executed.

      Another Example


      txtNam = getRequestString("CustomerName");
      txtAdd = getRequestString("Address");
      txtCit = getRequestString("City");
      txtSQL = "INSERT INTO Customers (CustomerName,Address,City) Values(@0,@1,@2)";


      The following examples shows how to build parameterized queries in some common web languages.



      txtUserId = getRequestString("UserId");
      sql = "SELECT * FROM Customers WHERE CustomerId = @0";
      command = new SqlCommand(sql);



      txtNam = getRequestString("CustomerName");
      txtAdd = getRequestString("Address");
      txtCit = getRequestString("City");
      txtSQL = "INSERT INTO Customers (CustomerName,Address,City) Values(@0,@1,@2)";
      command = new SqlCommand(txtSQL);



      $stmt = $dbh->prepare("INSERT INTO Customers (CustomerName,Address,City)
      VALUES (:nam, :add, :cit)");
      $stmt->bindParam(':nam', $txtNam);
      $stmt->bindParam(':add', $txtAdd);
      $stmt->bindParam(':cit', $txtCit);



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      Yep, some basics.

      Later on you'll need to hit some things more aggressively to really get between those Databases cheeks  $$$$$$



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